Sunday, April 2, 2017

World Cup Stories-Part 2 (The Second World Cup 1934)-part a


Photo From: Fussballweltmeisterschaft 1934 Italien, Author Hardy Grune
(poster of the World Cup by Gino Boccasile)


Photo From: Гольдес И.- История чемпионатов мира 1930-1962+
(Jules Rimet Trophy)


-The Success of the 1930 World Cup in Uruguay had convinced any remaining skeptics about the future of the Tournament.
As a result more Nations were willing to participate for the second edition to be held in 1934. This was a complete contrast to the lukewarm reception for participating in the 1930 World Cup, where many European Nations had to be cajoled into participating.

-By now FIFA membership was at 46. In all 32 Nations wanted to play in the World Cup (Though some sources point out to 29 entrants).
In the FIFA Congress of May 22, 1931, it was decided to have a World Cup Finals with 16 teams.
Therefore, qualifiers were needed to eliminate half the teams.

-During the FIFA Congress of May 13 and 14, 1932, in Stockholm, Sweden, Italy presented its candidacy to host the 1934 World Cup.
FIFA wanted to have the World Cup staged in many cities and the Italians were capable of this. Mussolini and his Fascist party (Partito Nazionale Fascista (PNF)) had given their Federation carte blanche for the World Cup.
The Italian Federation (F.I.G.C.) Vice President Giovanni Mauro lobbied the 60 delegates from 29 Nations with promises of Financial success for a World Cup in Italy.


Photo From: Fussballweltmeisterschaft 1934 Italien, Author Hardy Grune
(Giovanni Mauro, Chief of the World Cup Organizing committee )


-Italy were selected as the World Cup hosts in the FIFA Congress of October 8, 1932 in Zurich, Switzerland. Sweden, the only other candidate, withdrew their candidacy.
It had taken Italy, eight FIFA Congresses before they were chosen. They were selected mostly because they promised to run the World Cup even at a loss.
This was the first ever World Cup on European soil.


Photo From: Fussballweltmeisterschaft 1934 Italien, Author Hardy Grune
(1932 FIFA Congress)


-On February 28, 1933, the World Cup registeration was closed with 27 countries. The applications of Argentina, Bulgaria, Greece, Palestine and Peru arrived past the deadline, but on March 22nd, 1933, in Paris, the FIFA Executive Committee allowed their registeration. The number of Nations registered rose to 32.
21 out of the 28 Nations in Europe wanted to participate.  The remaining participants included 8 Nations from the Americas, 2 from Asia and one from Africa.

-This would be the only World Cup where the host had to particpate in the Qualification. Italy had to eliminate Greece to qualify to their own World Cup.

-Italy had spared no expense in preparations of their bid. Eight stadiums were presented (four of which were new) with adequate capacities.
The venues were located at Turin, Naples, Genova, Rome, Bologna, Florence, Milan and Trieste.
In contrast, during the 1930 World Cup in Uruguay, all the matches were confined to Motevideo.

-Italy had been under the Fascist Dictatorship of Benito Mussolini since 1922 when his Black Shirts had seized control.
It was said that until then, Mussolini had seen only one football match in his life, but he sensed that Football and the World Cup would be beneficial for him.
Mussolini saw Football (or Calcio as it was called in Italy) as an ideal propaganda tool for Fascism and winning was paramount to achieve this goal.
He put the full support of the Italian Government to lobby for the right to stage the World Cup in Italy.
Mussolini removed the F.I.G.C. President, Leandro Arpinati, and appointed General Giorgio Vaccaro (October 12, 1892-September 25, 1983).
Vaccaro became the right-hand of Mussolini as far as the World Cup and Calcio were concerned.
The new Italian Federation (F.I.G.C.) President General Giorgio Vaccaro bluntly had stated that  ‘the ultimate goal of the World Cup will be to show the universe what is the true fascist ideal of the sport’
The Official Poster showing a player making a fascist salute confimed the intents of the Italian hosts.


Photo From: Guerin Sportivo I Mondiali del 1934
(Giorgio Vaccaro, Preisdent of the Italian Federation, FIGC)


-The Italian Press was under Fascist control and only positive news about the National Team was permitted.
Mussolini ordered the construction of two new stadiums in Florence and Turin.
The others in Naples, Bologna, Milan, Genova and Rome were renovated.
To raise the necessary funds, the Fascist Party promoted a national lottery and increased taxes on various products – such as cigarettes, which came to bring the World Cup emblem on the packaging.
Railways were modernized at enormous expense to accommodate the transport of the increasing number of fans that were expected.
In contrast to the 1930 World Cup, there was great anticipation and hype for this World Cup.
General Vaccaro was confident that there would be no financial loss as the stadiums would be filled.

-A total of 158 Artists applied to create the Official Poster of the World Cup.
The first prize was won by the Roman Artist Luigi Martinati, whose picture showed a ball in the top corner of the net. The second-placed artist was Marco Gros from Turin. This one showed an Italian player giving the fascist salute.
However the poster that met the approval of the Organizing Committee was by Gino Boccasile. This showed an Italian Footballer kicking a ball, with other Nations’ flags in the background. 



Photo From: Гольдес И.- История чемпионатов мира 1930-1962+
(Poster by Luigi Martinati)



Photo From: Azzurri, Storia della Nazionale di calcio tre volte campioni del Mondo, 1910-1983 
(poster by Marco Gros, notice the Italian player has his hand raised in a fascist salute)


Photo From: La Seleccion Nacional, Part I-Con el orgullo a media cancha (1923-1970), By Carlos Calderon Cardoso
(The same poster by Marco Gros without signatures)


- The FIFA Executive Committee set up an organizing committee for the World Cup. FIGC Vice-President Giovanni Mauro took over the role of the President of the Organizing Committee, along with the Germans Dr. Schricker, Dr. Peco Bauwens and the Hungarian Maurice Fischer.
Ivo Schricker took upon the task of coordinating FIFA and F.I.G.C. through his connections with F.I.G.C. General Secretary Ottorino Barassi.
General Giorgio Vaccaro took part in almost all-important meetings of the Organizing Committee and formed the liaison between FIFA and the Fascist party (PNF).


Photo From: Guerin Sportivo I Mondiali del 1934
(Organizing Committee of the World Cup)


-Italy Manager Vittorio Pozzo (March 12, 1886-December 21, 1968) was hired by Pirelli at the age of 21. He had studied languages and had studies in Manchester, England. Due to his knowledge of English his Milanese managers sent him to England for Business trips. It was in Manchester that he took to the game. Upon his return to Italy he entered the Italian Federation with its headqarters in Turin. He also help found Torino FC.
He took charge of the National Team for the first time for the 1912 Olympics.
But his greatest impact to the Italian game would be when he returned as head coach in 1929. He would remain as Commissario Tecnico until 1948.



Photo From: Il Libro Azzuro, Author Walter Perosino, 1998
(Italy Manager Vittorio Pozzo)


Photo From: Il Libro Azzuro, Author Walter Perosino, 1998
(Italy Manager Vittorio Pozzo)


-The Italians spared no effort in winning the World Cup. They drafted the so-called Oriundis (an Oriundo in particular refers to South Americans with Spanish or Italian ancestry).
Argentinean-born stars such as Luisito Monti (Juventus), Raimundo Orsi (Juventus), Attilio Demaria (Ambrosiana-Inter) and Enrique Guaita (AS Roma) were selected by Pozzo.
Atilio Demaria (March 19, 1909-November 11, 1990) had joined Italy’s Ambrosiana-Inter (aka Internazionale Milano) in 1931.
The Brazilian born Anfilogino “Filho” Guarisi of Lazio was also selected.
He was born to an Italian mother.
Pozzo is known to have justified his selection of Oriundis by saying ‘If they can die for Italy, they can play for Italy.’ (making a reference to the fact that oriundis were subjected to the military draft).
Per strict FIFA regulations Monti, Demaria and Guaita should not have been allowed to play in the World Cup, since to change Nationality a player should have worked at least three years in his new country and this did not apply to the trio nor Guarisi.



Photo From: Azzurri, Storia della Nazionale di calcio tre volte campioni del Mondo, 1910-1983 
(Italy’s Enrico Guaita)

Photo From: Il Libro Azzurro del Calcio Italiano, Authors Pericle Pratelli, Pasquale Scardillo, 1974
(Italy’s Luisito Monti)


-Italy’s Raimundo Orsi (December 2, 1901-April 16, 1986) was a former Argentina International who had shot to fame during the 1928 Olympics in Amsterdam where Argentina had reached the Final (losing to Uruguay).
His displays at Amsterdam earned him the nickname ‘El Cometa de Amsterdam’ (comet of Amsterdam).
He did not even return home form the Olympics. Juventus’ Edoardo Agnelli signed him there. His price was 100,000 Lire, 8,000 Lire monthly salary and a Fiat 509.
He became the first South American to leave for Europe.
He also had spells at Penarol Montevideo, as well as Flamengo. In addition he was a skilled violinist.
He was eligible as an Oriundi since he was father was a Genovese.
In this World Cup, he became at the age of 32, the oldest goalscorer.



Photo From: Azzurri, Storia della Nazionale di calcio tre volte campioni del Mondo, 1910-1983 
(Italy’s Raimundo Orsi)


Photo From: Azzurri, Storia della Nazionale di calcio tre volte campioni del Mondo, 1910-1983 
(A cartoon of Italy’s Raimundo Orsi)


-Italy’s match vs. Austria (as part of the Dr. Gerö Cup) on February 11, 1934 in Turin would have profound effects on Italy’s preparations.
The home defeat (2-4) vs. Hugo Meisl’s side, forced Vittorio Pozzo to face certain realities in player personnel.
The disappointing display convinced Pozzo that the historic defensive Juventus trio of Combi-Rosetta and Caligaris were ageing and were a weakness.
The hardest decision was to demote the long-serving veteran left back and Team Captain Umberto Caligaris (July 26, 1901-October 19, 1940) from the starting lineup. Caligaris had been capped 59 times (in the squad since 1922), but that would be his last. He would essentially be a non-playing Captain on the World Cup Team. Caligaris passed away on October 19 1940, aged just 39 after collapsing during a veterans’ match.
Pozzo held reservations for Virginio Rosetta as well, for the time being he was to stay and became Captain.
Goalkeeper Giampiero Combi was also dropped as a starter in favor of Carlo Ceresoli (for the time being).
Italy’s only satisfaction in this match vs. Austria had been the new Oriundi Enrique Guaita, who scored two goals in his debut.




Photo From: Azzurri, Storia della Nazionale di calcio tre volte campioni del Mondo, 1910-1983 
(A cartoon of Italy’s Virginio Rosetta)


Photo From: Il Libro Azzurro del Calcio Italiano, Authors Pericle Pratelli, Pasquale Scardillo, 1974
(Italy’s Umberto Caligaris)


Photo From: Azzurri, Storia della Nazionale di calcio tre volte campioni del Mondo, 1910-1983 
(A cartoon showing Vittorio Pozzo notifying Umberto Caligaris that he would not start in the World Cup)


-Just as European participation had been minimal for the 1930 edition in South America, the same would hold for the South Americans for this time in Europe.
It must be remembered that in those days, lengthy sea voyages were required for Inter-continental travel.
But there were other reasons as well.
Uruguay chose to boycott in protest against the many European refusals (including the Italians) for their World Cup in 1930.
Some also believed that they felt many of their stars were ageing now and believed they could not adequately compete (but most believe in the former reason).
Other reasons given were the loss of revenue if players were away for two months and the League would suffer. There was also a players’ strike that they had to contend with.
Uruguay did not register on closing date of February 28, 1933.
This was the only World Cup where the defending champion did not participate.

-The British Nations were still out of FIFA and would miss out on all the World Cups of the 1930s.



Photo From: Fussballweltmeisterschaft 1934 Italien, Author Hardy Grune
(Other poster of the World Cup)



Photo From: Fussballweltmeisterschaft 1934 Italien, Author Hardy Grune
(Other poster of the World Cup)



Photo From: Fussballweltmeisterschaft 1934 Italien, Author Hardy Grune
(Other poster of the World Cup)


Photo From: Fussballweltmeisterschaft 1934 Italien, Author Hardy Grune
(Other poster of the World Cup)



Photo From: Fussballweltmeisterschaft 1934 Italien, Author Hardy Grune
(Other poster of the World Cup)

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