Sunday, April 2, 2017

World Cup Stories-Part 2 (The Second World Cup 1934)-part c

Pre-World Cup

-Italy Manager Vittorio Pozzo selected up to seventy players to be whittled down.
The Preparation was divided in two phases. At first the squad stayed at Mottarone Mountains in the Western Alps overlooking Lake Maggiore in a town called Stresa.
This first phase was to detoxify the players from the effects of the Serie A.
It was to physically heal the players and create harmony.
The players were subjected to thorough medical examinations and benefited from massages, baths, etc.
Then the squad moved to Roveta, near Florence for the second phase.
This phase was more intense and physically grueling. The tactical work and organization groundwork was also part of this phase.
Pozzo pushed his players physically and mentally to prepare them for the World Cup. It was three weeks of intense work with Juventus Manager Carlo Carcano helping out Pozzo.
He pushed them hard to forge his squad into a strong unit.
He had such control over the players that it was said that Pozzo even read the players’ letters to make sure they did not have mistresses, etc…Things that he had to learn “for the good of the team.”
It was during this intense training regimen that Carlo Ceresoli broke his arm. This ruled him out of the World Cup and earned Giampiero Combi a recall as a starter as goalkeeper.
This type of training camp was unprecedented in the history of the Italian National Team (Though it must be said the National Team had only started 24 years prior).
The players were in a bubble completely cut off from the public for all this time.
Pozzo selected 70, then down to 50 then 38, then 29, ultimately 22

Photo From: Guerin Sportivo-La Grande Storia Del Calcio Italiana-1933-1934
(Italy’s Giampiero Combi)

Photo From: La Nazionale Italiana, 1978
(Italy’s Angelo Schiavio and Giuseppe Meazza)

Photo From: Azzurri, Storia della Nazionale di calcio tre volte campioni del Mondo, 1910-1983 
(Italy squad just before the start of the World Cup)

Photo From: Azzurri, Storia della Nazionale di calcio tre volte campioni del Mondo, 1910-1983 
(Italy squad in casual wear)

Photo From: Azzurri, Storia della Nazionale di calcio tre volte campioni del Mondo, 1910-1983 
(A cartoon of Italy manager Vittorio Pozzo)

-Italy defender Luigi Allemandi (November 8, 1903-September 25, 1978) had been embroiled in a bribery scandal in 1927 while a Juventus player.
The Torino and Juventus match-up on June 5, 1927 was the title decider for the Italian League season.
Torino officials had offered Juventus defender Luigi Allemandi a bribe of 50,000 Lira (25,000 before the match and 25,000 after the match).
Torino won the match 2-1 and clinched the title. Afterwards Allemandi went to collect the rest of the money but was refused. A journalist from the ‘Tifone’ newspaper overheard the exchange and disclosed the event.
Torino’s title win was revoked and Allemandi was banned for life.
Prince Umberto II of Savoia pardoned Allemandi and he joined Internazionale Milano (Ambrosiana-Inter).

Photo From: Гольдес И.- История чемпионатов мира 1930-1962+
(Italy’s Luigi Allemandi)
(November 8, 1903-September 25, 1978)

-The Italian hosts covered most of the expenses of the teams. Travel, lodgings were taken care by the Italian Authorities. The agreement stipulated that the Italians were responsible from five days before the first to two days after the last match of the team in question.

-Each Nation was required to name a squad of 22 players by May 12th, 1934.
However, each Nation was to take 17 players with 5 players on standby.

-Despite pleas from the Italians, in the end Argentina sent a team without Professionals (that was outside of FIFA Jurisdiction). All the players were from the Amateur Association that was affiliated with FIFA.
It was thought that the Professional clubs did not want to release their players for two months since their clubs’ finances would suffer.
But the largely held view was that the clubs did not want to release their best players because they were afraid that they would be poached by the Italian clubs. (Just like Orsi, Monti, Guaita, etc..)
Just two weeks before leaving, Italian Manager Felipe Pascucci who lived in Argentina joined the squad.
Argentina set sail on the Italian steamboat ‘Neptunia’. They returned on June 16th aboard the Italian Ship ‘Ocenia’.
Both ‘Neptunia’ and ‘Oceania’ were sunk on September 18, 1941 by the British submarine ‘Upholder’. The two ships had been under the control of the Italian Navy at the start of World War II and were being used for Military purposes.

Photo From: Historias Sudamericanas en la Copa del Mundo 1930-2006
(Argentina squad on the way to and arriving to Italy) zo)

Photo From: Historias Sudamericanas en la Copa del Mundo 1930-2006
(Argentina squad)

-The Italian Manager Felipe Pascucci is the only foreign Manager of Argentina in a World Cup.

-In Germany and Switzerland, the national championship would be interrupted for the duration of the World Cup and was to be completed after the World Cup.

-This was Germany’s first ever particpation in the World Cup. The Nation had been under the control of Hitler and the Nazis since the previous year.

-German Manager Otto Nerz selected an original squad of 38 players before narrowing down the squad for the Finals.
The original Germany selection of 38 players:
Hans Jakob (Sportbund Jahn Regensburg)
Willibald Kress (Dresdner Sport Club)
Fritz Buchloh (VfB (Verein für Bewegungsspiele) Speldorf- Mülheim)
Eduard Hundt (ETB (Essener Turnerbund) Schwarz-Weill Essen e.V.)
Sigmund Haringer (Fußball-Club Bayern München e.V.)
Erwin Stuhrk (Eimsbütteler Turnverband e. V.-Hamburg) (Killed on the Eastern Front on November 3, 1942)
Franz Dienert (VfB (Verein für Bewegungsspiele) Mühlburg)
Wilhelm Busch (Turn- und Sport-Verein Duisburg 1899)
Hans Schwartz (Sport-Club Victoria 1895 e.V. Hamburg)
Max Schäfer (Turn- und Sportverein München von 1860 e. V.)
Paul Janes, Jakob Bender (both Düsseldorfer Turn-und Sportverein Fortuna 1895 e.V.)
Paul Zielinski (Sport-Verein Union 02 Hamborn)
Rudolf Gramlich (Sportgemeinschaft Eintracht Frankfurt 1899)
Walter Gloede (Hamburger Sport-Verein e.V.)
Richard Oehm (1.FC Nurnberg)
Josef Streb (Fußball-Club Wacke München)
Ludwig Goldbrunner (Fußball-Club Bayern München e.V.)
Fritz Szepan (Fußball Club Schalke von 1904 e.V.- Gelsenkirchen)
Reinhold Munzenberg (Aachener Turn- und Sport-Verein Alemannia von 1900 e.V.-Aachen)
Josef Rodzinski (Sportfreunde Hamborn 07 Fußballabteilung e. V.)
Matthias Billen (Sportfreunde Hamborn 07 Fußballabteilung e. V.)
Ernst Albrecht, Willi Wigold, Stanislaus Kobierski (all three with Düsseldorfer Turn-und Sportverein Fortuna 1895 e.V.)   
Ernst Lehner (Turn- und Sport-Verein 1847 Schwaben Augsburg e.V.)
Ludwig Lachner (Turn- und Sportverein München von 1860 e. V.)
Franz Krumm (Fußball-Club Bayern München e.V.) (Killed on the Eastern Front on March 9, 1943)
Edmund Conen (Fußball Verein Saarbrücken)
Kurt Langenbein (Verein für Rasenspiele Mannheim 1896 e. V.)
Karl Hohmann (Verein fur Leibesubungen Benrath 06 e.V.)
Otto Rohwedder (Eimsbütteler Turnverband e. V.-Hamburg)
Otto Siffling (Sportverein Waldhof Mannheim)
Rudolf Noack , Karl Politz (both Hamburger Sport-Verein e.V.)
Richard Malik (Beuthenener Spiel- und Sport-Verein 1909) (Killed on the Eastern Front on January 20, 1945)
Ernst Kuzorra (Fußball Club Schalke von 1904 e.V.- Gelsenkirchen)
Matthias Heidemann (Sport Verein Werder Bremen von 1899 e.V.)
Hans Appel (Berliner Sport-Verein 1892 e.V.)
Note: In bold, are the players that made the final cut.

-After selecting its initial 38 players, Germany played four friendlies vs. English Club Derby County to whittle down its squad. The matches were played in Frankfurt (5-2 win), Koln (5-0 win), Dusseldorf (0-1 loss) and Dortmund (1-1 tie).

- Josef Rasselnberg who had scored four goals in Germany’s qualifier vs. Luxembourg missed out on the World Cup due to injury.

-Germany traveled with 17 players and their Senior Staff/officials: Otto Nerz, Sepp Glaser, Tute Lehmann and Dr. Haggenmuller.
Reinhold Mumzenberg, Ernst Albrecht, Fritz Buchloh, Franz Dienert and Josef Streb were on stand-by.

-In Brazil, the amateur Association (CBD (Confederación Brasileña de Deportes)) based in Rio was recognized by FIFA.
The Professional Federação Brasileira de Football (FBF) based in São Paulo was the other entity opposed to CBD.
Just like Argentina, the inclusion of only CBD Amateurs would have presented a weaker team in the World Cup.
An agreement was made whereby Professional players from the FBF would be freed from their contracts and would sign temporary contracts for the Amateur Association (CBD) for the duration of World Cup.
The Rio and Sao Paulo newspapers joined forces in a campaign to try to pacify the sour relations between CBD and FBF. The proposal called for a six-month truce, which would begin in February 1934 and end after for the World Cup.
The chosen Chief of the Brazil delegation was Carlito Rocha of Botafogo, the biggest club in CBD. He was also the CBD representative for the FIFA Congress.
He was also a Referee (he did not officiate in the World Cup) and acted as part of the technical staff in the World Cup.
The CBD empowered its representative in Sao Paulo, Jose Carlos de Silva Freire to put the Rocha’s plan in practice. Freire publicly announced to the press how much he would pay each person to accept the proposal and also divulged the names of the players who were most interested.
Carlito Rocha set out in building the team for the World Cup. He chose Luiz Augusto Vinhaes as the Manager (winner of two editions of the Rio Branco Cup).
From São Paulo da Floresta, Sylvio Hofmann, Luizinho, Armandinho and Waldemar de Brito joined the cause.
From Vasco Da Gama, Tinico and Leonidas joined. From Gremio, he convinced Luiz Luz (Some sources show Luiz Luz registered with Rio’s Americano FC).
Players from Palestra Italia avoided the offers.

Photo From: Calcio 2000, Issue 21, July 1999

There was a rumor that CBD had offered 30 Contos (30 Million Reis / Brazilian currency) to each player.  Some newspapers questioned the players’ attitude by headlines such as "Patriotism for 30 contos" on the newspaper "Sports Journal".
Some also believed each player’s offer was different; apparently Leonidas (who would become the 1938 World Cup top goalscorer) was made a generous offer that also included a car.
The CBD attempted to enroll defender Domingos da Guia. But he had joined Uruguay’s National of Montevideo in February of 1933 and needed authorization from his new employers to join the National Team.
Nacional Montevideo knowing that CBD were throwing money around to raise a team asked a hefty sum for Domingos. The amount demanded was deemed ‘an absurdity’ by CBD and they lost interest. They were successful in obtaining the release of Patesko from Nacional Montevideo, for whom they demeaned a reasonable sum.
Patesko was the only foreign-based player. Patesko became the first ever Brazilian player in a World Cup to be ‘registered’ to a foreign club.
Brazil started its training camp on April 24th, 1934.
On May 3rd, the ocean liner ‘Neptunia’ (carrying the Argentina delegation) made a stop at Rio. The Argentines were apparently astonished to learn that Brazil were to travel a week later, since it seemed insufficient time to acclimatize and get back to form after such a long journey.
According to the CBD, they had to do this to save costs. On May 9th, the CBD made a last ditch effort to gather Professionals by publishing in newspapers final offers to Domingos da Guia (who was about to join Vasco da Gama), Mario and Ladislau (both Bangu), Jaguare (Corinthians), Tunga (Palestra) and Amado (Flamengo).
None of the players accepted the offers and Brazil sent seventeen players to the World Cup.
On May 11th, Brazil President Getulio Vargas received the squad.
On Saturday May 12th, at noon, the Brazil delegation boarded the Italian Ocean liner ‘SS Conte Biancamano’.
The trip would take 11 days with a stop at Dakar. The players on board exercised daily (jumps and short runs) and swam in the pool for two hours each day.
The SS Conte Biancamano also made a stop in Barcelona. ​​The players were taken to a field near the port for a quick game of 40 minutes.
Their adversaries in the World Cup, the Spanish delegation, boarded the ship at Barcelona.
On May 23rd, 1934, on a Wednesday, the SS Conte Biancamano arrived in Genova, four days before the match. The squad was lodged at Genova’s Astoria Hotel.
The following morning, the Brazilian players trained in the Sampdoria‘s stadium.

Photo From: El Mundo Deportivo, May 24, 1934
(Spain squad embarking on ‘SS Conte Biancamanao’ along with and Brazil squad)

Photo From: El Mundo Deportivo, May 26, 1934
(Brazil’s Botafogo trio: Canali, Martim and Ariel)

-This was Brazil’s smallest contingent for a World Cup. Only 17 players made the trip (nine were from Botafogo).
To save costs, Brazil did not travel with a physio nor a doctor. Caribe da Rocha was a trained physician and Carvalho Leite was in the process of studying medicine. It was believed the pair could handle any physical problems faced by Brazil in the World Cup.

-Brazil’s Carlos Antônio Dobbert de Carvalho Leite (June 25, 1912- July 19, 2004) was also present at the 1930 World Cup, where he was youngest player. 
In fact he was the only Brazilian player from the 1930 squad present for this one.
When he passed away in 2004, he was the last surviving member of the 1930 Brazil squad.

Photo From: Гольдес И.- История чемпионатов мира 1930-1962+
(Brazil’s Carvalho Leite)

-To raise funds for the costs of the return trip, the Brazilian National Team played Friendly matches against:
June 3, 1934 (Belgrade, Yugoslavia 8-Brazil 4)
June 8, 1934 (Zagreb, Gradjanski (Yugoslavia) 0-Brazil 0)
June 17, 1934 (Barcelona, Catalan XI 2-Brazil 1)
June 24, 1934 (Barcelona, Catalan XI 2-Brazil 2)
July 1, 1934 (Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain) 4-Brazil 4)
Matches were also played in Portugal vs. a combined Benfica/Belenenses (4-2 for Brazil), a win over Sporting Lisbon (6-1) and a scoreless draw with Porto.

-France squad gathered for a week at Compiegne.
The man in charge was the Englishman George Kimpton (August 12, 1887-February 15, 1968).
15 players were conserved from May 22-26 to prepare for the Finals.
Amazingly France had seven players with Second Division clubs.
Lucien Laurent (December 10, 1907-April 11, 2005), the first ever goalsocrer in the History of the World Cup (1930) was part of the French squad in this World Cup as well, though he did not play.

Photo From: Fussballweltmeisterschaft 1934 Italien, Author Hardy Grune
(France players in casual wear)

-In Switzerland, their preparations were hampered by the refusal of Servette Geneva to release players. The 1934 Swiss Cup Final pitted Grasshoppers Zurich vs. Servette Geneva.
Servette questioned the eligibility of Grashoppers’ German player Oskar Rohr (Grand uncle of future 80s Bordeaux defender and 90s Manager Gernot Rohr).
For some time Servette refused to release their players due to this dispute with the Federation.
In the end, Servette backed off under threat of sanctions.
It is also worthy to note that Fernand Jaccard (October 8, 1907-April 15, 2008) was playing for a Third Divison side (FC La Tour-de-Peilz). He lived to the age of 100.
This World Cup was the first where the Swiss had a training camp. They stayed at Ticino at the South of Switzerland near the Italian border.

Photo From: Гольдес И.- История чемпионатов мира 1930-1962+
(Switzerland’s Fernand Jaccard)
(October 8, 1907-April 15, 2008)
dFragment--> zo)

-Belgium’s Raymond Braine had been refused the right to participate in the 1930 World Cup due to his professional activities (Opening a Restaurant and joining Czechoslovakian side Sparta Prague as a Professional).
He had an offer to play for Czechoslovakia for this World Cup but he refused.

-The Dutch had high expectations for the World Cup after their successful qualifying campaign.
Dutch fans in the thousands (5-6) were expected to make the trip to Italy.
The goalkeeping position appeared to be a weakness with Adri van Male being seen as a liability after his poor match vs. Republic of Ireland in the qualifiers.
The Dutch Management therefore decided to recall Gejus van der Meulen.
He had ended his football career in December 1933 to devote himself to his practice as a pediatrician. Appeals were made to include him and he accepted.

Photo From: de Internationals, de Historie van Oranje, Authors Matty Verkamman, Henri van der Steen, John Volkers
(Holland’s Adri van Male)
(October 7, 1910-October 11, 1990)

Photo From: de Internationals, de Historie van Oranje, Authors Matty Verkamman, Henri van der Steen, John Volkers
(Holland’s Gejus van der Meulen)
(January 23, 1903-July 10, 1972)

There was confidence within the Dutch camp that even a song was made "We're going to Rome". This was an allusion to the venue for the Final Match.
The newspapers were full of optimism and even predicted an Austria-Holland Final.
On May 21st, the players gathered at Arnhem to travel to Italy by train the following day.
When their train passed through Switzerland it went past where the Swiss had their training camp.
The entire Swiss team had lined up as a show greeting. The Dutch Federation thanked their Swiss counterparts in a telegram. The Dutch arrived near Como, not far from Milan.
The Dutch training camp was in Cernobbio in Como. Reportedly the squad grew bored there in isolation. There was also some complaints that the returning Gejus van der Meulen had been authorized to travel with his wife while the rest of the squad were not given such a privilege.
While there, it was also discovered that Kees Mijnders had a groin injury and he would be out of the World Cup.
Joop van Nellen joined the squad late, as his father was ill. Only when doctors considered his father’s life out of danger, did van Nellen travel to Italy

Photo From: de Internationals, de Historie van Oranje, Authors Matty Verkamman, Henri van der Steen, John Volkers
(Holland’s Kees Mijnders)
(September 28, 1912-April 1, 2002)

Photo From: de Internationals, de Historie van Oranje, Authors Matty Verkamman, Henri van der Steen, John Volkers
(Holland’s Joop van Nellen)
(March 15, 1910-November 14, 1992)

-Austria were one of the favorites for the Tournament. This was the great Austrian ‘Wunderteam’ side that had marked history.
Legendary Manager Hugo Meisl (November 16, 1881-February 17, 1937) had created one of the most talked about sides in the History of the game.
He started out as a banker before being captivated by the game.

Photo From: Österreichs Fußball Länderspiele Chronik 1902 – 1993, Author Anton Egger
(Austria Manager Hugo Meisl)

Meisl was also a former International referee. He had taken full control of the Austrian National Team in 1919 and became one of the greatest Managers of the game along with his contemporaries Vittorio Pozzo and the Englishman Herbert Chapman.
Meisl guided Austria to a 14-match unbeaten run in the early 30s.
The Austrians had defeated Italy just months prior to the World Cup, but were somewhat fading by 1934 despite still being one of the best in Europe.
At the age of 52, he was the oldest Manager at this World Cup.
Meisl died of a heart attack less then three years after the World Cup on February 17, 1937. He did not live to see the Anschluss the following year. He most likely would have had left Austria since he was Jewish.

Photo From: Österreichs Fußball Länderspiele Chronik 1902 – 1993, Author Anton Egger
(Austria players in Bologna)

Photo From: Österreichs Fußball Länderspiele Chronik 1902 – 1993, Author Anton Egger
(Austria squad 1934 World Cup in casual wear)

-The star of Meisl’s squad was Matthias Sindelar, nicknamed ‘the man of paper’.
Matthias Sindelar was found dead on February 23, 1939. Presumably he had committed suicide along with his girlfriend Camilla Castagnola in their Vienna Apartment by carbon monoxide poisoning
However, there have been many theories over the years, such as his death may have been accidental due to a defective chimney and/or the Nazis had murdered him for his opposition to the Anschluss and refusal to play for the new Germany National Team which included former Austrians.

Photo From: Österreichs Fußball Länderspiele Chronik 1902 – 1993, Author Anton Egger
(Austria’s Matthias Sindelar)
(February 10, 1903-January 23, 1939) dFragment--> zo)

-Austria’s Josef Bican (September 25, 1913-December 12, 2001) would also go on and represent Czechoslovakia (1938-1949) and Bohemia/Moravia (1939) Internationally.

Photo From: Österreichs Fußball Länderspiele Chronik 1902 – 1993, Author Anton Egger
(Austria’s Josef Bican)
(September 25, 1913-December 12, 2001)

-Egypt were the very first ever African qualifiers to the World Cup. It would be another 36 years until 1970 when another African Nation (Morocco) would qualify for the World Cup.

-Spain made its preparations by playing matches against English side Sunderland.
Pedro Regueiro was cut while his brother Luis Regueiro made the team.
For the first time a cook joined the team on its journey.
Spain’s legendary goalkeeper Ricardo Zamora (January 21, 1901-September 8, 1978) had been a household name for over a decade after his breakthrough at the age of 19 at the 1920 Olympics in Antwerp. By now he was the oldest goalkeeper (as well as the oldest captain) at this World Cup aged 33.

Photo From: Mondial, New Series, Hors Serie 14, 1982, La Glorieuse Epopee De la Coupe Du Monde
(Spain goalkeeper Ricardo Zamora)

Photo From: Todo Sobre La Seleccion Espanola, Felix Martialay, 2006
(Spain squad)

-It was decided by the Organizing Committee to do away with around robin format for the World Cup. Instead direct elimination process was used.
They made a seeding system and placed eight teams as top seeds to be drawn against the un-seeded teams.
In case of ties, the matches would go into overtime. There would be a 5-minute rest between full time and overtime.
On May 3, 1934, the World Cup draw took place at a Roman Hotel. The Diplomatic representatives of 13 of the 16 Nations attended.
Eight balls were put in two baskets. The Grandson of General Giorgio Vaccaro participated in the draw.

Photo From: Guerin Sportivo I Mondiali del 1934
(World Cup Draw)

Photo From: Guerin Sportivo I Mondiali del 1934
(World Cup Draw)

The Organizing Committee announced the top seeds: The hosts Italy, Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Brazil, Argentina, Germany and Holland.
Spain and Switzerland protested at the decision. Spanish goalkeeper Ricardo Zamora vocally expressed his displeasure. Ironically, both Spain and Switzerland defeated the seeded teams they were drawn with (Brazil and Holland).
Apparently upon learning of their draw vs. Switzerland, Holland’s Puck van Heel had said, “That we can do.”  (Words that he would regret).

Photo From: History of the World Cup, Author Michael Archer 
(Spain goalkeeper Ricardo Zamora)

-On May 24, 1934, Italy's Party General Secretary Achille Starace in Campidoglio opened the FIFA Congress, which discussed the development of international football. It was there that it was decided that Football would once again appear in the 1936 Berlin Olympics in Germany (The 1932 Edition in Los Angeles had not taken place).

-This was the first World Cup to be broadcast by Radio. The European Nations had direct Transmission of their matches by radio. In fact 12 of the 16 teams broadcast matches live on Radio.
France took two announcers to broadcast simultaneous matches.
Brazil still received the news by telegraph, from newspaper reports, which passed on the results to the public gathered in front of its buildings by means of posters exposed in the windows.
USA relayed the matches by telephone via (Wireless Telegraphy (Morse Code)) above the Atlantic and then by Telephone again on USA mainland.
Belgium, Austria, Egypt and Holland refused live transmission.
It was believed Holland refused to pay Italian Radio the right to transmission because they were certain to qualify in the First Round (however, they lost to Switzerland).
16 radio stations from ten countries were accredited, 270 press agencies or newspapers sent reporters to Italy, even from Nations that did not participate.
Famous Argentinean Actor and Journalist Luis Elias Sojit (May 7, 1910-July 20, 1982), broadcasted Argentina’s match vs. Sweden for Argentinean Radio. This was the first live match from Europe for the Argentinean radio.

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